C ++自定义流操纵器,可更改流中的下一项

在C ++中,要打印十六进制数字,请执行以下操作:

int num = 10;
std::cout << std::hex << num; // => 'a'

我知道我可以创建一个仅向流中添加内容的操纵器,如下所示:

std::ostream& windows_feed(std::ostream& out)
{
    out << "\r\n";
    return out;
}

std::cout << "Hello" << windows_feed; // => "Hello\r\n"

但是,如何创建一个类似于“ hex”的操纵器来修改要出现在流中的项目? 作为一个简单的示例,我将如何在此处创建plusone机械手?:

int num2 = 1;
std::cout << "1 + 1 = " << plusone << num2; // => "1 + 1 = 2"

// note that the value stored in num2 does not change, just its display above.
std::cout << num2; // => "1"
Tristan Havelick asked 2019-11-18T21:33:04Z
7个解决方案
71 votes

首先,您必须将一些状态存储到每个流中。 您可以使用0函数和传递给它的索引(由0给出)来实现:

inline int geti() { 
    static int i = ios_base::xalloc();
    return i;
}

ostream& add_one(ostream& os) { os.iword(geti()) = 1; return os; } 
ostream& add_none(ostream& os) { os.iword(geti()) = 0; return os; }

将其放置在适当的位置,您已经可以在所有流中检索某些状态。 现在,您只需要加入相应的输出操作即可。 数值输出由构面完成,因为它可能取决于语言环境。 所以你可以做

struct my_num_put : num_put<char> {
    iter_type 
    do_put(iter_type s, ios_base& f, char_type fill, long v) const { 
        return num_put<char>::do_put(s, f, fill, v + f.iword(geti())); 
    } 

    iter_type 
    do_put(iter_type s, ios_base& f, char_type fill, unsigned long v) const { 
        return num_put<char>::do_put(s, f, fill, v + f.iword(geti())); 
    } 
}; 

现在,您可以测试这些东西了。

int main() {
    // outputs: 11121011
    cout.imbue(locale(locale(),new my_num_put));
    cout << add_one << 10 << 11 
         << add_none << 10 << 11;
}

如果您只想增加下一个数字,只需在每次调用do_put之后再次将单词设置为0

Johannes Schaub - litb answered 2019-11-18T21:33:36Z
13 votes

我完全同意尼尔·巴特沃思(Neil Butterworth)的观点,但是在特定情况下,您可能会使用这种完全骇人听闻的技巧。 不要在任何生产代码中执行此操作。 它有很多错误。 一方面,它仅适用于您的单行代码,而不会更改基础流的状态。

class plusone_stream : public std::ostream
{
  public:
    std::ostream operator<<(int i)
    {
      _out << i+1;
      return *this;
    }
};

std::ostream& plusone(std::ostream& out)
{
    return plusone_stream(out);
}
1800 INFORMATION answered 2019-11-18T21:34:00Z
2 votes

这不是您问题的直接答案,但是您是否不认为使用普通的旧函数比编写完整的操纵器既易于实现,又更容易使用?

#include <sstream>

template<typename T>
std::string plusone(T const& t) {
    std::ostringstream oss;
    oss << (t + 1);
    return oss.str();
}

用法:

cout << plusone(42);

“易于使用”是指用户不需要问自己:“它只会影响下一项还是所有后续项?” 从检查可以明显看出,仅函数的参数受到影响。

(对于plusone()示例,您可以通过返回T来进一步简化,但返回std::string可以满足一般情况。)

j_random_hacker answered 2019-11-18T21:34:39Z
1 votes

我为您的测试用例创建了一个简单的解决方案,而没有使用PlusOnePlus。我不能保证相同的方法在现实生活中会起作用。

基本方法是PlusOnePlus返回一个临时辅助对象(PlusOnePlus),该对象又具有执行加法的重载operator <<

我已经在Windows上对其进行了测试:

PlusOne plusone;
cout << plusone << 41

产生“ 42”,如预期的那样。 这是代码:

class PlusOnePlus {
public:
    PlusOnePlus(ostream& os) : m_os(os) {}
    // NOTE: This implementation relies on the default copy ctor,
    // assignment, etc.
private:
    friend ostream& operator << (PlusOnePlus& p, int n);
    ostream& m_os;
};

class PlusOne {
public:
    static void test(ostream& os);
};

PlusOnePlus operator << (ostream& os, const PlusOne p)
{
    return PlusOnePlus(os);
}

ostream& operator << (PlusOnePlus& p, int n)
{
    return p.m_os << n + 1;
}

void PlusOne::test(ostream& os)
{
    PlusOne plusone;
    os << plusone << 0 << endl;
    os << plusone << 41 << endl;
}

编辑:注释了代码,指出我依赖PlusOnePlus的默认副本构造函数(等)。一个可靠的实现可能会定义这些

Dan Breslau answered 2019-11-18T21:35:31Z
1 votes

您将不得不使用流状态。 我在该主题上添加了以下链接:

  • 关于Boost ML的讨论
  • Maciej Sobczak关于CUJ / DDJ的文章

由于Maciej Sobczak库不再在线可用,并且许可证允许我这样做,(如果我错了,请纠正我),这是我设法从遗忘中打捞的主文件的副本:

// streamstate.h
//
// Copyright (C) Maciej Sobczak, 2002, 2003
//
// Permission to copy, use, modify, sell and distribute this software is
// granted provided this copyright notice appears in all copies.  This software
// is provided "as is" without express or implied warranty, and with no claim
// as to its suitability for any purpose.
//
// <http://lists.boost.org/Archives/boost/2002/10/38275.php>
// <http://www.ddj.com/dept/cpp/184402062?pgno=1>
// <http://www.msobczak.com/prog/publications.html>

#ifndef STREAMSTATE_H_INCLUDED
#define STREAMSTATE_H_INCLUDED

#include <ios>
#include <istream>
#include <ostream>

// helper exception class, thrown when the source of error
// was in one of the functions managing the additional state storage
class StreamStateException : public std::ios_base::failure
{
public:
    explicit StreamStateException()
        : std::ios_base::failure(
            "Error while managing additional IOStream state.")
    {
    }
};

// State should be:
// default-constructible
// copy-constructible
// assignable

// note: the "void *" slot is used for storing the actual value
//       the "long" slot is used to propagate the error flag
template
<
    class State,
    class charT = char,
    class traits = std::char_traits<charT>
>
class streamstate
{
public:
    // construct with the default state value
    streamstate() {}

    // construct with the given stream value
    streamstate(const State &s) : state_(s) {}

    // modifies the stream
    std::basic_ios<charT, traits> &
    modify(std::basic_ios<charT, traits> &ios) const
    {
        long *errslot;
        void *&p = state_slot(ios, errslot);

        // propagate the error flag to the real stream state
        if (*errslot == std::ios_base::badbit)
        {
            ios.setstate(std::ios_base::badbit);
            *errslot = 0;
        }

        // here, do-nothing-in-case-of-error semantics
        if (ios.bad())
            return ios;

        if (p == NULL)
        {
            // copy existing state object if this is new slot
            p = new State(state_);
            ios.register_callback(state_callback, 0);
        }
        else
            *static_cast<State*>(p) = state_;

        return ios;
    }

    // gets the current (possibly default) state from the slot
    static State & get(std::basic_ios<charT, traits> &ios)
    {
        long *errslot;
        void *&p = state_slot(ios, errslot);

        // propagate the error flag to the real stream state
        if (*errslot == std::ios_base::badbit)
        {
            ios.setstate(std::ios_base::badbit);
            *errslot = 0;
        }

        // this function returns a reference and therefore
        // the only sensible error reporting is via exception
        if (ios.bad())
            throw StreamStateException();

        if (p == NULL)
        {
            // create default state if this is new slot
            p = new State;
            ios.register_callback(state_callback, 0);
        }

        return *static_cast<State*>(p);
    }

private:
    // manages the destruction and format copying
    // (in the latter case performs deep copy of the state)
    static void state_callback(std::ios_base::event e,
        std::ios_base &ios, int)
    {
        long *errslot;
        if (e == std::ios_base::erase_event)
        {
            // safe delete if state_slot fails
            delete static_cast<State*>(state_slot(ios, errslot));
        }
        else if (e == std::ios_base::copyfmt_event)
        {
            void *& p = state_slot(ios, errslot);
            State *old = static_cast<State*>(p);

            // Standard forbids any exceptions from callbacks
            try
            {
                // in-place deep copy
                p = new State(*old);
    }
            catch (...)
            {
                // clean the value slot and
                // set the error flag in the error slot
                p = NULL;
                *errslot = std::ios_base::badbit;
            }
        }
    }

    // returns the references to associated slot
    static void *& state_slot(std::ios_base &ios, long *&errslot)
    {
        static int index = std::ios_base::xalloc();
        void *&p = ios.pword(index);
        errslot = &(ios.iword(index));

        // note: if pword failed,
        // then p is a valid void *& initialized to 0
        // (27.4.2.5/5)

        return p;
    }

    State state_;
};

// partial specialization for iword functionality
template
<
    class charT,
    class traits
>
class streamstate<long, charT, traits>
{
public:
    // construct with the default state value
    streamstate() {}

    // construct with the given stream value
    streamstate(long s) : state_(s) {}

    // modifies the stream
    // the return value is not really useful,
    // it has to be downcasted to the expected stream type
    std::basic_ios<charT, traits> &
    modify(std::basic_ios<charT, traits> &ios) const
    {
        long &s = state_slot(ios);
        s = state_;

        return ios;
    }

    static long & get(std::basic_ios<charT, traits> &ios)
    {
        return state_slot(ios);
    }

private:
    static long & state_slot(std::basic_ios<charT, traits> &ios)
    {
        static int index = std::ios_base::xalloc();
        long &s = ios.iword(index);

        // this function returns a reference and we decide
        // to report errors via exceptions
        if (ios.bad())
            throw StreamStateException();

        return s;
    }

    long state_;
};

// convenience inserter for ostream classes
template
<
    class State,
    class charT,
    class traits
>
std::basic_ostream<charT, traits> &
operator<<(std::basic_ostream<charT, traits> &os,
    const streamstate<State> &s)
{
    s.modify(os);
    return os;
}

// convenience extractor for istream classes
template
<
    class State,
    class charT,
    class traits
>
std::basic_istream<charT, traits> &
operator>>(std::basic_istream<charT, traits> &is,
    const streamstate<State> &s)
{
    s.modify(is);
    return is;
}

// the alternative if there is a need to have
// many different state values of the same type
// here, the instance of streamstate_value encapsulates
// the access information (the slot index)

template
<
    class State,
    class charT = char,
    class traits = std::char_traits<char>
>
class streamstate_value
{
public:

    streamstate_value()
        : index_(-1)
    {
    }

    // returns a reference to current (possibly default) state
    State & get(std::basic_ios<charT, traits> &ios)
    {
        long *errslot;
        void *&p = state_slot(ios, errslot, index_);

        // propagate the error flag to the real stream state
        if (*errslot == std::ios_base::badbit)
        {
            ios.setstate(std::ios_base::badbit);
            *errslot = 0;
        }

        // this function returns a reference and the only
        // sensible way of error reporting is via exception
        if (ios.bad())
            throw StreamStateException();

        if (p == NULL)
        {
            // create default state if this is new slot
            p = new State;
            ios.register_callback(state_callback, index_);
        }

        return *static_cast<State*>(p);
    }

private:

    // manages the destruction and format copying
    // (in the latter case performs deep copy of the state)
    static void state_callback(std::ios_base::event e,
        std::ios_base &ios, int index)
    {
        long *errslot;
        if (e == std::ios_base::erase_event)
        {
            // safe delete if state_slot fails
            delete static_cast<State*>(state_slot(ios, errslot, index));
        }
        else if (e == std::ios_base::copyfmt_event)
        {
            void *& p = state_slot(ios, errslot, index);
            State *old = static_cast<State*>(p);

            // Standard forbids any exceptions from callbacks
            try
            {
                // in-place deep copy
                p = new State(*old);
    }
            catch (...)
            {
                // clean the value slot and set the error flag
                // in the error slot
                p = NULL;
                *errslot = std::ios_base::badbit;
            }
        }
    }

    // returns the references to associated slot
    static void *& state_slot(std::ios_base &ios,
        long *& errslot, int & index)
    {
        if (index < 0)
        {
            // first index usage
            index = std::ios_base::xalloc();
        }

        void *&p = ios.pword(index);
        errslot = &(ios.iword(index));

        // note: if pword failed,
        // then p is a valid void *& initialized to 0
        // (27.4.2.5/5)

        return p;
    }

    int index_;
};

// partial specialization for iword functionality
template
<
    class charT,
    class traits
>
class streamstate_value<long, charT, traits>
{
public:
    // construct with the default state value
    streamstate_value()
        : index_(-1)
    {
    }

    long & get(std::basic_ios<charT, traits> &ios)
    {
        if (index_ < 0)
        {
            // first index usage
            index_ = std::ios_base::xalloc();
        }

        long &s = ios.iword(index_);
        if (ios.bad())
            throw StreamStateException();

        return s;
    }

private:
    long index_;
};

#endif // STREAMSTATE_H_INCLUDED 
Luc Hermitte answered 2019-11-18T21:36:16Z
0 votes

litb的方法是“正确的方法”,对于复杂的东西是必需的,但是像这样的东西可能就足够了。 增加私密性和友谊来品味。

struct PlusOne
{
   PlusOne(int i) : i_(i) { }
   int i_;
};

std::ostream &
operator<<(std::ostream &o, const PlusOne &po)
{
   return o << (po.i_ + 1);
}

std::cout << "1 + 1 = " << PlusOne(num2); // => "1 + 1 = 2"

在这个简单的示例中,创建和流式传输一个临时对象似乎并没有像有人建议的那样定义一个函数plusOne()有用。 但是假设您希望它像这样工作:

std::ostream &
operator<<(std::ostream &o, const PlusOne &po)
{
   return o << po.i_ << " + 1 = " << (po.i_ + 1);
}

std::cout << PlusOne(num2); // => "1 + 1 = 2"
Dan answered 2019-11-18T21:36:47Z
-1 votes

plusoneplusoneoct机械手仅更改现有streambasefield属性。

有关这些操纵器的更多详细信息,请参见《 C ++参考》。

如尼尔·巴特沃思(Neil Butterworth)的回答中所述,您将需要扩展现有的流类或创建自己的流类,以使影响将来值的操纵器插入到流中。

在您的plusone机械手的示例中,流对象将必须具有一个内部标志,以指示应将一个标志添加到所有插入的值中。 plusone机械手将简单地设置该标志,并且用于处理流插入的代码将在插入数字之前检查该标志。

e.James answered 2019-11-18T21:37:34Z
translate from https://stackoverflow.com:/questions/799599/c-custom-stream-manipulator-that-changes-next-item-on-stream